Symptoms & Diagnosis
Cardiology is a specialty of internal medicine. To be a cardiologist in the United States, a three year residency in internal medicine is followed by a three year residency in cardiology. It is possible to specialize further in a sub-specialty.
Heart failure is a clinical syndrome characterised by:
- Typical symptoms: breathlessness, fatigue, ankle swelling.
- Typical signs: tachycardia, tachypnoea, pulmonary rales, pleural effusion, raised jugular venous pressure (JVP), peripheral oedema, hepatomegaly.
- Objective evidence of a structural or functional abnormality of the heart at rest: cardiomegaly, third heart sound, cardiac murmurs, echocardiogram abnormalities.